Hans Edler was born on 16 September 1893 in Göttingen. His father was Wilhelm Edler and was a professor at the university.
He obtained his Abitur in 1912 in Jena and then went to the Technische Hochschule in Breslau and Danzig where he studied engineering and electronics.
From 1919 to 1922 he was an assistant at the Institute of technical Physics at Jena University. He worked mainly in electronics but also supervised the work of his students.
Shortly after this he spent some time in Berlin at the university where he met Käthe Lehrs. She had to give up her degree to marry him on 19 May 1923 at the Berlin Wilmersdorf registry office. Their only daughter Klara Renate Edler was born on 5 July 1925.